A mixed picture for the Latin American radical left has emerged over the last two years. On the one hand, leftist and moderate leftist governments have won presidential elections in Ecuador, Bolivia, El Salvador and Brazil, while right-wing presidential candidates with strong possibilities of success were defeated in Chile, Panama and Colombia. On the other hand, some left-leaning governments have faced increasing economic difficulties which have contributed to weaker results in recent elections. In Venezuela the government of NicolÃ¡s Maduro has been subject to an all-out destabilization campaign and will now face a congressional election that the opposition wants to characterize as a plebiscite. In addition, the sharp decline in international hydrocarbon prices has negatively affected the economies of Venezuela, Bolivia and Ecuador. In Venezuela and elsewhere the role of the market in nations committed to socialism has become a major issue of debate, as is currently the case in Cuba. The presentations on this panel will look at the challenges facing the Latin radical left as well as factors that favor the political survival of those governments, such as the emergence of UNASUR, MERCOSUR, CELAC, ALBA and other international bodies free of U.S. domination. Finally, it will look at the role of the United States in efforts to counter the radical left in the region.