We will explore the role of armed and other militant forms of popular struggle in contemporary revolutionary processes contesting the hegemonies of Capitalism, Imperialism, Sociocultural Marginalization and Political Exclusion through a comparative discussion of movements and praxis. We will draw on various cases including the Maoist movement in India, Maoist movemens in Peru and Philippines, the popular Self Defense Forces in Mexico, militant struggles in the United States and elsewhere to assess the possible different forms that popular participation in armed and mass resistance can play in different contexts and phases in the revolutionary process. Can we make the case that since Protracted Peopleв??s War unfolds in stages, that we find it may have a universal applicability in its relevance under contemporary Imperialist Capitalism? Or does the critique of some on the left, by contrast, that Protracted War only applies to primarily agrarian, feudal societies render the strategy ever less viable in the absence of contemporary socialist states and the rising urbanization of many в??third worldв?ќ societies? What purchase does the strategy have in the context of the decline of the industrialized West and the establishment Left and the rise of contemporary fascism in the first and third worlds? We hope this leads to a constructive discussion of these and related issues.