Sanctions are among a range of coercive instruments used by the United States government to achieve its foreign policy goals. Often presented as a diplomatic and peaceful alternative to direct military engagement, sanctions ironically can have just as devastating outcomes. They may also be seen as a prelude to actual kinetic warfare, strategically deployed to weaken targeted governments and/or their populations’ morale. Indeed sanctions may even create the very "humanitarian crises" to which they were allegedly responding. Addressing the situations of Cuba, Iran, Russia, and Venezuela, this panel addresses the origins, implementation, and impact of US-imposed sanctions. It will also consider both popular and state-based resistance to sanctions in both the United States and in the targeted countries.