Venezuela achieved great social advances through the drafting of the Bolivarian Constitution of 1999. These advances included the inclusion of traditionally disenfranchised populations, the redistribution of wealth in the country, and the establishment of participatory democracy, among others. As the Western Hemisphere faces a new wave of right-wing conservative governments and agendas, attempting to roll-back the social progress of the last decade and a half, Venezuela's popular movement is responding by activating a Constituent Assembly, to revise the Constitutional text, consolidate social gains and address the social, economic and political challenges and attacks facing the country.